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History Of Refrigeration Reading Answers: IELTS Reading Practice Test

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Updated on Jul 02, 2024, 11:57

The IELTS Reading section assesses your ability to comprehend and interpret texts in English from a variety of sources. Over a 60-minute period, you will answer 40 questions based on three passages, testing your skills in understanding main ideas, identifying details, and interpreting implicit meanings. These passages are drawn from books, journals, magazines, and newspapers, reflecting a range of topics and styles you may encounter in academic or professional settings.
 

In the passage "History of Refrigeration," you will explore the evolution of refrigeration technology from its early beginnings to modern advancements. This text delves into the scientific breakthroughs, key inventions, and societal impacts of refrigeration, highlighting its role in transforming food storage, medical preservation, and daily life. Understanding this topic provides insights into how critical technological innovation has shaped contemporary society. 

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1. History Of Refrigeration Reading Passage

You should spend approximately 20 minutes answering Questions 1 - 14 based on the Reading Passage below. This approach can help manage time effectively during a reading comprehension activity or exam. 

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2. History Of Refrigeration Question & Answers

Discover exciting and informative IELTS reading answers about History Of Refrigeration

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1.

History Of Refrigeration Reading Passage

General Information

  • Read Instructions: Understand each question before answering.
  • Manage Time: Spend about 20 minutes per passage.
  • Skim and Scan: Quickly get the main idea and find specific information.
  • Highlight Key Info: Underline essential words or phrases.
  • Answer All Questions: Attempt every question; no penalty for wrong answers.
  • Stay Focused: Avoid distractions and keep your attention on the task.
  • Check Spelling: Ensure correct spelling and grammar.
  • Transfer Answers Clearly: Write answers neatly on the answer sheet.
  • Don’t Dwell: Move on if stuck and return later.
  • Review: If time allows, review your answers.

 

 

 History Of Refrigeration


Paragraph A

Refrigeration is a process of removing heat, which means cooling an area or a substance below the environmental temperature. Mechanical refrigeration makes use of (the evaporation of a liquid refrigerant, which goes through a cycle so that it can be reused. The main cycles include vapour compression, absorption steam-jet or steam-ejector, and airing. The term ‘refrigerator’ was first introduced by Maryland farmer Thomas Moore in 1803, but it was in the 20th century that the appliance we know today first appeared.

 

Paragraph B

People used to find various ways to preserve their food before the advent of mechanical refrigeration systems. Some preferred using cooling systems of ice or snow, which meant that diets would have consisted of very little fresh food or fruits and vegetables but mostly of bread, cheese, and salted meals. For milk and cheeses, it was very difficult to keep them fresh, so such foods were usually stored in a cellar or window box. In spite of those measures, they could not survive rapid spoilage. Later on, people discovered that adding such chemicals as sodium nitrate or potassium nitrate to water could lead to a lower temperature. In 1550, when this technique was first recorded, people used it to cool wine, which was the term ‘to refrigerate’. Cooling drinks grew very popular in Europe by 1600, particularly in Spain, France, and Italy. Instead of cooling water at night, people used a new technique: rotating long-necked bottles of water which held dissolved saltpetre. The solution was intended to create very low temperatures and even to make ice. By the end of the 17th century, iced drinks, including frozen juices and liquors, had become extremely fashionable in France.

 

Paragraph C

People’s demand for ice soon became strong. Consumers’ soaring requirement for fresh food, especially for green vegetables, resulted in reform in people’s dieting habits between 1830 and the American Civil War, accelerated by a drastic expansion of the urban areas arid the rapid amelioration in the economy of the populace. With the growth of cities and towns, the distance between the consumer and the source of food was enlarged. In the 1799s, ice was first transported out of Canal Street in New York City to Charleston, South Carolina, as a commercial product. Unfortunately, this transportation was not successful because when the ship reached its destination, little ice was left. Frederick Tudor and Nathaniel Wyeth, two New England businessmen, grasped the great potential opportunities for the ice business and managed to improve the storage method of ice in the process of shipment. The acknowledged ‘Ice King’ at that time, Tudor concentrated his efforts on bringing the ice to the tropics1 areas. In order to achieve his goal and guarantee the ice arrived at the destination safely, he tried many insulating materials in an experiment and successfully constructed the ice containers, which drastically reduced the ice loss from 66 percent to less than 8 percent drastically. Wyeth invented an economical and speedy method to cut the ice into uniform blocks, which had a tremendously positive influence on the ice industry. Also, he improved the processing techniques for storing, transporting, and distributing ice with less waste.

 

Paragraph D

When people realised that the ice transported from the distance was not as clean as previously thought and gradually caused many health problems, it was more demanding to seek clean natural sources of ice. To make it worse, by the 1890s, water pollution and sewage dumping made clean ice even more unavailable. The adverse effect first appeared in the blowing industry and then seriously spread to sectors such as the meat packing and dairy industries. As a result, clean, mechanical refrigeration was considered necessary.

 

Paragraph E

Many inventors with creative ideas took part in the process of inventing refrigeration, and each version was built on previous discoveries. Dr. William Cullen initiated the study of the evaporation of liquid under vacuum conditions in 1720. He soon invented the first man-made refrigerator at the University of Glasgow in 1748, using ethyl ether to boil into a partial vacuum. American inventor Oliver Evans designed the refrigerator firstly using vapour rather than liquid in 1805. Although his conception was not put into practice in the end, the mechanism was adopted by an American physician, John Gorrie, who made one cooling machine similar to Evans’ in 1842 with the purpose of reducing the temperature of the patient with yellow fever in a Florida hospital. In 1851, Evans obtained the first patent for mechanical refrigeration in the USA. In 1820, Michael Faraday, a Londoner, first liquefied ammonia to cause cooling. In 1859, Ferdinand Carre from France invented the first version of the ammonia water-cooling machine. In 1873, Carl von Linde designed the first practical and portable compressor refrigerator in Munich, and in 1876, he abandoned the methyl ether system and began using the ammonia cycle. Linde later created a new method (‘Linde technique’) for liquefying large amounts of air in 1894. Nearly a decade later, this mechanical refrigerating method was adopted subsequently by the meat packing industry in Chicago. 

 

Paragraph F

Since 1840, cars with refrigerating systems have been utilised to deliver and distribute milk and butter. Until 1860, most seafood and dairy products were transported with cold-chain logistics. In 1867, refrigerated railroad cars were patented to J.B Sutherland from Detroit, Michigan, who invented insulated cars by installing ice bunkers at the end of the cars: air came in from the top, passed through the bunkers, circulated through the cars by gravity and controlled by different quantities of hanging flaps which caused different air temperatures. Depending on the cargo (such as meat, fruits, etc.) transported by the cars, different car designs came into existence. In 1867, the first refrigerated car to carry fresh fruit was manufactured by Parker Earle of Illinois, who shipped strawberries on the Illinois Central Railroad. Each chest was freighted with 100 pounds of ice and 200 quarts of strawberries. In 1949, the trucking industry began to be equipped with a refrigeration system with a roof-mounted cooling device invented by Fred Jones.

 

Paragraph G

From the late 1800s to 1929, refrigerators employed toxic gases – methyl chloride, ammonia, and sulphur dioxide – as refrigerants. However, in the 1920s, a great number of lethal accidents took place due to the leakage of methyl chloride out of refrigerators. Therefore, some American companies started to seek secure refrigeration methods. Frigidaire detected a new class of synthetic refrigerants called halocarbons or CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) in 1928. This research led to the discovery of chlorofluorocarbons (Freon), which quickly became the prevailing material in compressor refrigerators. Freon was safer for the people in the vicinity, but in 1973, it was discovered to have detrimental effects on the ozone layer. After that, new improvements were made, and Hydrofluorocarbons, with no known harmful effects, were used in the cooling system. Simultaneously, nowadays, chlorofluorocarbons (CFS) are no longer used; they have been announced as illegal in several places, making refrigeration far safer than before. 

2.

History Of Refrigeration Question & Answers

Discover exciting and informative IELTS reading answers about History Of Refrigeration

Questions and Answers 1-5
  • Look at the following events (Questions 1-5) and the list of dates below.
  • Match each event with the correct date, A-F.
  • Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet

 

 List of Dates

 A. 1550

 B. 1799

 C. 1803

 D. 1840

 E. 1949

 F. 1973

 

 1. Vehicles with refrigerators were used to transport on the road. - ____

 2. Ice was sold around the United States for the first time. - ____

 3. Some kind of chemical refrigerant was found harmful to the atmosphere. - ____

 4. The term ‘refrigerator’ was first introduced. - ____

 5. Some chemicals were added to refrigerate the wine. - ____
 
 

History Of Refrigeration Reading Answers with Explanations (1-5)

 

Type of question: Matching information

In this question type, you will be asked to match specific pieces of information, often dates, names, or events, from the reading passage with corresponding options provided in the question. 

 

How to best answer:  

  • Read each statement carefully to understand the specific information being asked for.
  • Scan the passage for relevant dates or events in the reading passage that corresponds to each statement.
  • Eliminate incorrect options that do not match the information found in the passage.
  • Match the remaining options based on the information provided in the passage.
  • Verify your answers to ensure they match the information in the passage before finalising them.

 

1. D

 

Reference:

From paragraph F: "Since 1840, cars with refrigerating systems have been utilised to deliver and distribute milk and butter."
 

Explanation

This line indicates that starting from 1840, vehicles equipped with refrigeration systems were used to transport dairy products like milk and butter. This innovation was crucial in maintaining the freshness and quality of perishable goods over long distances, revolutionising food distribution and storage.
 

2. B

 

Reference:

From paragraph C:  “In the 1799s as a commercial product, ice was first transported out of Canal Street in New York City to Charleston, South Carolina.”
 

Explanation

This line highlights the commercial ice trade's beginning in the 1790s when ice was transported from New York City to Charleston, South Carolina. This marked a significant step in the commercialisation of ice, which was essential for preserving food and beverages before the widespread adoption of mechanical refrigeration.
 

3. F

 

Reference:

From paragraph G:  "Freon was safer for the people in the vicinity, but in 1973, it was discovered to have detrimental effects on the ozone layer."

 

Explanation

This line explains that while Freon was initially considered safe for use in refrigeration, scientific discoveries in 1973 revealed its harmful impact on the ozone layer. This led to significant environmental concerns, prompting a shift towards safer refrigerants that do not deplete the ozone layer.
 

4. C

 

Reference:

From paragraph A: "The term ‘refrigerator’ was first introduced by Maryland farmer Thomas Moore in 1803, but it was in the 20th century that the appliance we know today first appeared."
 

Explanation

This line points out that the term 'refrigerator' was coined in 1803 by Thomas Moore, a Maryland farmer. This introduction marks the beginning of a formal recognition of the concept of refrigeration, paving the way for further innovations in cooling technology.
 

5. A

 

Reference:

From paragraph B: "Later on, people discovered that adding such chemicals as sodium nitrate or potassium nitrate to water could lead to a lower temperature. In 1550, when this technique was first recorded, people used it to cool wine, which was the term ‘to refrigerate’."

 

Explanation

This line details that in 1550, the technique of using chemicals like sodium nitrate or potassium nitrate to lower water temperature was first documented. This process was initially used to cool wine, thereby giving rise to the term 'to refrigerate', which is fundamental to the concept of refrigeration. 

Questions and Answers 6-10
  • Look at the following opinions or deeds (Questions 6-10) and the list of people below.

  • Match each opinion or deed with the correct person, A-G.
  • Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes 6-10 on your answer sheet.

 

 List of People

 A. Thomas Moore

 B. Frederick Tudor

 C. Carl Von Linde

 D. Nathaniel Wyeth

 E. J.B. Sutherland

 F. Fred Jones

 G. Parker Earle 

 

 6. Patented the idea that refrigerating systems can be installed on tramcars - ____

 7. Invented an ice-cutting technical method that could save money and time - ____

 8. Enabled the cold storage technology to be applied in fruit - ____

 9. Invented a cooling device applied to the trucking industry - ____

 10. created a new technique to liquefy the air - ____

 

History Of Refrigeration Reading Answers with Explanations (6-10)

 

Type of question: Matching Features

In this task, you are required to match a list of opinions or deeds with the correct individuals from a provided list. This type of question tests your ability to identify relationships and connections between people and their contributions or viewpoints, as mentioned in the text. 

 

How to answer:  

  • Carefully read the instructions to know what criteria or basis you're using for matching.
  • Identify the key features or attributes of each item on the list.
  • Use the elimination process to narrow down the options for the remaining matches.
  • Review all matches to ensure they are coherent and aligned with the given criteria.
  • Look for patterns or relationships between items to improve the efficiency of making correct matches.
  • Finalise your answers
     
6. E businesses

 

Reference:

From paragraph F: "In 1867, refrigerated railroad cars were patented to J.B. Sutherland from Detroit, Michigan, who invented insulated cars by installing the ice bunkers at the end of the cars."
 

Explanation

J.B. Sutherland is credited with patenting refrigerated railroad cars in 1867, which were essential in revolutionising the transportation of perishable goods by rail. His invention allowed for the widespread adoption of refrigeration technology in the transport sector, enabling the safe delivery of food over long distances.
 

7. D

 

Reference:

From paragraph C: “Wyeth invented an economical and speedy method to cut the ice into uniform blocks, which had a tremendously positive influence on the ice industry.”
 

Explanation

Nathaniel Wyeth's innovation in 19th-century ice-cutting techniques significantly improved the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the ice industry. His method for cutting ice into uniform blocks not only reduced waste but also made it easier to store and transport ice, thereby contributing to the expansion of the refrigeration industry.

 

8. G

 

Reference:

From paragraph F: "In 1867, the first refrigerated car to carry fresh fruit was manufactured by Parker Earle of Illinois, who shipped strawberries on the Illinois Central Railroad."
 

Explanation

Parker Earle played a pivotal role in adapting refrigeration technology for the transportation of fresh fruit. His creation of the first refrigerated railcar designed for carrying strawberries marked a milestone in cold storage logistics, facilitating the wider distribution of perishable fruits over long distances.

 

9. F

 

Reference:

From paragraph F: "Until 1949, the trucking industry began to be equipped with the refrigeration system with a roof-mounted cooling device, invented by Fred Jones."
 

Explanation

Fred Jones' invention of a refrigeration system with a roof-mounted cooling device in 1949 revolutionised the trucking industry. His innovation enabled the transportation of perishable goods under controlled temperatures, ensuring the freshness and quality of products during transit. 
 

10. C

 

Reference:

From paragraph E: "Linde later created a new method (‘Linde technique’) for liquefying large amounts of air in 1894."
 

Explanation

Carl Von Linde's development of the 'Linde technique' for liquefying large amounts of air in 1894 was a breakthrough in industrial refrigeration. This innovation laid the foundation for practical and portable refrigeration systems, which became indispensable in various sectors, including food preservation and industrial manufacturing.

Questions and Answers 11-14
  • Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-E, below.
  • Write the correct letter, A-E, in boxes 11-14 on your answer sheet.

 

11. A healthy dietary change between 1830 and the American Civil War was greatly associated with - ____

12. The development of urbanisation was likely to cause - ____

13. Problems due to water treatment contributed to - ____

14. The risk of environmental devastation from refrigeration led to - ____

 

A. new developments, such as the application of Hydrofluorocarbons.

B. consumers ’ demand for fresh food, especially vegetables.

C. The discovery of chlorofluorocarbons (Freon).

D. regional transportation system for refrigeration for a long distance.

E. the extensive spread of the refrigeration method.
 

History Of Refrigeration Reading Answers with Explanations (11-14)

 

Type of question: Matching sentence endings

 In this question type, you will be given incomplete sentences, and you will have to complete the end of the  sentence by selecting suitable words or phrases from the given list. 

 

How to best answer:  

  • Skim through the incomplete sentences to get an idea of the context
  • Recognise keywords in each sentence
  • Scan your list of options and look for the keywords
  • Verify the context and check if the word flows with the rest of the sentence 
  • Finalise your answers
     
11. B

 

Reference:

From paragraph C: "Consumers’ soaring requirement for fresh food, especially for green vegetables, resulted in reform in people’s dieting habits between 1830 and the American Civil War, accelerated by a drastic expansion of the urban areas amid the rapid amelioration in an economy of the populace."
 

Explanation

The passage highlights how increasing demand for fresh vegetables drove dietary changes during urban expansion, prompting healthier eating habits.
 

12. D

 

Reference:

From paragraph C: "With the growth of the cities and towns, the distance between the consumer and the source of food was enlarged. In the 1799s as a commercial product, ice was first transported out of Canal Street in New York City to Charleston, South Carolina."
 

Explanation

Urbanisation necessitated the development of a regional transportation system for refrigerated goods, reducing the distance between consumers and their food sources.
 

13. E

 

Reference:

From paragraph D: "To make it worse, by the 1890s, water pollution and sewage dumping made clean ice even more unavailable. The adverse effect first appeared in the blowing industry and then seriously spread to sectors such as the meat packing and dairy industries. As a result, clean, mechanical refrigeration was considered in need."
 

Explanation

Environmental issues like water pollution drove the widespread adoption of mechanical refrigeration methods across industries, mitigating the reliance on contaminated natural ice.
 

14. A

 

Reference:

From paragraph G: "Freon was safer for the people in the vicinity, but in 1973, it was discovered to have detrimental effects on the ozone layer. After that, new improvements were made, and Hydrofluorocarbons, with no known harmful effects, were used in the cooling system."
 

Explanation

Concerns over environmental damage from Freon prompted innovation in refrigeration technology, leading to the adoption of safer alternatives like Hydrofluorocarbons, ensuring both effective cooling and environmental protection. 

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FAQs

Q. Are spelling and grammar important in the IELTS Reading test?

Ans.  Yes, correct spelling and grammar are essential, especially in tasks requiring you to write words or short answers. Incorrect spelling or grammar can result in losing marks, even if your answer is otherwise correct. Paying attention to these details can make a significant difference in your overall score, so practice spelling and grammar regularly.

 

 


 

Q. What types of texts can I expect in the Academic Reading test?

Ans.  Improving reading speed involves regular practice with reading materials, skimming and scanning techniques, and practising under timed conditions to simulate the test environment. Focus on identifying key information quickly and practice reading a variety of texts to enhance your ability to process information rapidly.


 


 


 

Q. How to score on the IELTS reading test?

Ans. Your score in the IELTS reading test depends on the number of correct answers. Each correct answer earns one point, and there's no penalty for incorrect answers. Your final score is then converted into an IELTS band score, ranging from 0 to 9.