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Classifying Societies Reading Answers: IELTS Reading Practice Test

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Updated on Jul 02, 2024, 11:57

An essential aspect of understanding human history and cultural evolution is the classification of societies. Analysing the structure of society gives scholars a better understanding of how it works and what shapes human behaviour. 
 

In this IELTS Reading Practice Test, we will explore the various categories of society and factors that contribute to their classification. Through this examination, we want to improve your understanding of the various societies that have emerged throughout history and their significance for shaping our lives today.

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1. Classifying Societies Reading Passage

You should spend approximately 20 minutes answering Questions 1 - 13 based on the Reading Passage below.

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2. Classifying Societies Reading Questions & Answers

Discover exciting and informative IELTS reading answers about Classifying Societies.

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1.

Classifying Societies Reading Passage

The general Instructions for IELTS Reading are as follows:

  • You should read the instructions for each question carefully and answer according to them.
  • The reading passages will increase in difficulty as you progress through the test.
  • You should manage your time carefully to ensure enough time to answer all the questions.
  • You cannot bring any electronic devices, including mobile phones, into the test room.
  • You are advised to read the passages and questions thoroughly before answering them.

 

 

 

 

 Types of Societies Reading Passage


 

Paragraph 1

Despite the fact that humans have created a wide variety of societies throughout history, sociologists and anthropologists typically distinguish between them based on how unequally access diverse communities within a society have to perks like resources, prestige, or power. They typically distinguish between four basic types of societies. Clans, tribes, chiefdoms, and states are ranked from least to most socially complex.
 

Paragraph 2

Clan

These are small-scale hunter-gatherer cultures that typically have less than 100 members and travel about seasonally to take advantage of wild (undomesticated) sources of food. This category includes the majority of still-existing hunter-gatherer societies, including the Hadza of Tanzania and the San of southern Africa. Members of a clan are typically kinsmen who are related by marriage or descent. Clans don't have official leaders, thus there aren't any obvious social or economic divisions among their members. Due to the fact that clans are made up of dispersed bands of hunters and gatherers, the majority of their locations are seasonal camps as well as other, more specialised and smaller sites. They include work sites, where tools are created, kill or butchery sites, where large mammals are slaughtered and occasionally butchered, and other such areas. Such a group's base camp may show signs of very poorly constructed homes or temporary shelters, alongside the remains of residential occupation.

 

Paragraph 3

Tribe

They usually number and over a few thousand people, are typically larger than nomadic hunter-gatherer communities, and rely heavily on domesticated animals and cultivated vegetables for their diet and livelihood. Although they tend to be nomadic farmers with a completely diverse, mobile economy based on the intensive exploitation of animals, they are typically established farmers. These civilizations typically consist of several different groups that are connected to one another by familial relationships. Despite the fact that some tribes have representatives and even a "capital" or seat of government, these representatives lack the economic foundation required for the efficient utilisation of Tribal communities typically consisting of villages or settled agricultural homesteads. It is typical of the area that no one settlement predominates over the others. Instead, the archaeologist discovers proof of solitary, continuously inhabited homes or continuously inhabited settlements. The original farms in the Danube valley in Europe were made up of a group of free-standing homes, much like these settlements. Or they could be grouped together with clusters of buildings, such as the pueblos in the American Southwest and the historic farming community or small town of (catalhoyuk in contemporary Turkey).
 

Paragraph 4

Chiefdom

They work on the ranking principle, or the idea that people have different social positions. A scale of prestige is used to rank the lineages, and the senior lineage—and thus the society in its entirety—is led by a chief. A lineage is a collection of people who claim similarity. There is no real class division; prestige and rank are decided by how strongly one is associated with the chief. The chief's job is very important. Locals frequently specialise in handicrafts, and surpluses of both of these and foodstuffs are periodically paid as a courtesy to the chief. They are used by him to keep up his retainers, and he can also distribute them to his subjects. The chiefdom typically has a centre of power, which is frequently home to temples, the chief's and his retainers' dwellings, and craftsmen . The population of chiefdoms varies widely, although the average range is between 5000 and 20,000 people.
 

Paragraph 5

Early state

They maintain many of the characteristics of chiefdoms, but the ruler (who may be a king or occasionally a queen) has the express right to enact laws and to enforce them using a standing army. Society is now split into various groups and no longer solely rests on blood bonds. The lowest classes are made up of agricultural labourers and the impoverished urban residents, followed by craft specialists, clerics, and members of the ruler's family. The duties of the ruler are frequently distinguished from those of the priest: palace and temple. The society is seen as a realm controlled by the royal family, inhabited by tenants, and subject to taxation. A bureaucratic administration of officials is located in the central capital, and one of its main responsibilities is to collect money (typically in the form of taxes and tolls) and give it to the government, army, and craft specialists. To support these fundamental services, many early nations created intricate redistribution schemes.

Elman Service's and William Sanders' and Joseph Marino's relatively straightforward social typology is open to criticism, thus it shouldn't be applied carelessly. But, using words and thus concepts is necessary if we are to discuss early cultures. The types of services offer a helpful framework for structuring our thoughts.

2.

Classifying Societies Reading Questions & Answers

Discover exciting and informative IELTS reading answers about Classifying Societies.

Questions and Answers 1-4
Questions and Answers 5-7
Questions and Answers 8-13
Are the following claims accurate with the passage's information?
On your answer sheet, write in boxes 1-4:

  • TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
  • FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
  • NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

 

1. The economic status of clan members is generally similar.

2. A tribe's farmers cultivate a variety of plants.

3. In a tribe, a single settlement is more significant than all the others combined.

4. The amount of land a person possesses determines his rank inside the chiefdom.
 

Classifying Societies Reading Answers with Explanations (1-4)
 

 

Type of question: True/False/Not Given

 

In this task, you are given a set of statements. Based on your understanding of the passage, you aim to identify the nature of the given statement and write the correct answer. 
 

The statement is 
 

TRUE               if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE              if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN    if there is no information on this
 

How to best answer the question
 

  • Read the given statements carefully and memorise the keywords
  • With the keywords help, find the passage's references, which will help you decide whether the given statement is true or false
  • If the information is not there in the passage, then your answer will be not given

 

1. True

 

Reference

From paragraph 2: “Clans don't have official leaders, thus there aren't any obvious social or economic divisions among their members.”
 

Explanation

Clans lack official leaders and are often based on kinship ties, which suggests that there isn't a rigid hierarchy or significant economic disparities among members. Therefore, the statement that the economic status of clan members is true.

 

2. Not Given

 

Reference

From paragraphs 1 to 5: “Despite the fact that humans have created a wide variety of societies throughout history,.........The types of services offer a helpful framework for structuring our thoughts.”
 

Explanation

The answer is not given as no information is provided about the tribe's farmers cultivating various plants.

 

3. False

 

Reference

From paragraph 3: “It is typical of the area that no one settlement predominates over the others.”
 

Explanation

The answer is false because, in the area under discussion, no single settlement reigns supreme over the others. This suggests that the common notion of a tribe being dominated by a single settlement is flawed. Instead, the region is characterised by a more egalitarian power distribution and influence among its various settlements.

 

4. False

 

Reference

From paragraph 4: “They work on the ranking principle, or the idea that people have different social positions. A scale of prestige is used to rank the lineages, and the senior lineage—and thus the society in its entirety—is led by a chief. A lineage is a collection of people who claim similarity.”
 

Explanation

The passage clarifies that the statement about land determining one's rank within the chiefdom is false. The society follows a ranking principle based on a scale of prestige, with the chief leading the senior lineage. Ancestry is more important than the possession of land in evaluating the chief's strength.

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FAQs

Q. How much time should I spend on each passage in the IELTS Reading test?

Ans. The IELTS Reading test has three passages, each lasting approximately 20 minutes. You have 60 minutes to pass this module. Flexibility is key; you can adjust the time allocated for each section according to its difficulty. If you want to write your answers on the answer sheet, ensure you've left some time at the end. While preparing, practice time management to develop a strategy that works best for you.

Q. What are some common mistakes to avoid in the IELTS Reading test?

Ans. Ignoring instructions, spending too much time on a single question, overlooking keywords, and not practising skimming and scanning techniques are common mistakes in the IELTS Reading test. Candidates should be careful to follow instructions, manage time well, and pay attention to key terms to improve their ability to identify information in the passages quickly.

Q. How can I improve my reading speed for the IELTS Reading test?

Ans.  Practice skimming and scanning techniques regularly to increase the speed of readings for the IELT exam. Skim passages to grasp the main ideas and use scanning to locate specific information efficiently. Try to use your vocabulary to shorten the time it takes to read unfamiliar words and aim for a balance of speed and comprehension based on consistent practice with different reading materials.

Q. What are some effective reading strategies for the IELTS Reading test?

Ans. Effective reading strategies for the IELTS Reading test include skimming passages to understand the essential concepts, scanning for keywords that will help find specific information more efficiently, and determining the structure of the text so that one can understand its organisation. In addition, good schedule management is necessary to ensure that all sections are completed within the prescribed time limit.

Q. What are some common misconceptions about the IELTS Reading test?

Ans.  One of the most commonly misunderstood misconceptions about the IELTS Reading test is that it is necessary to read the whole text when skimming and scanning for important information is more efficient. Another myth is that spending too much time on a single question guarantees accuracy, ignoring the importance of completing an entire section in due course.

Q. How can I stay calm and focused during the IELTS Reading test?

Ans. Practice mindful techniques such as deep breathing to cope with stress and remain calm and focused during the IELTS Reading test. Take a systematic approach, such as skimming the passage to obtain an overview. Don't focus on difficult questions; instead, mark them and move on to complete the entire section within the time limit. Maintain a steady and focused attitude.

Q. What is the band score range for the IELTS Reading module?

Ans. The IELTS Reading module is scored using a scale of 0 to 9. For each of the three sections, test takers are assigned a band score, and an overall average of these individual marks is calculated. The band scores correspond to different proficiency levels, ranging from non-user (band score 0) to expert (band score 9).

Q. Where can I get resources for IELTS Reading test preparation?

Ans.  In addition to the official IELTS website, which provides sample tests and practice materials, you can find useful resources on preparing for an IELTS Reading exam. In addition, consider using IELTS preparation books, websites such as the British Council and Cambridge English or mobile applications specifically designed for IELTS practice. To improve your reading skills for the test, these resources offer a variety of exercises and tips.

Q. How many questions are there in the IELTS Reading test?

Ans. It's important to note that the IELTS Reading test comprises of 40 questions spread across three passages. The questions can be of various types, such as multiple-choice, matching, true/false/not given, and sentence completion. Candidates are given 60 minutes to read the passages, answer the questions, and transfer their answers to the answer sheet. Good time management is essential to complete the test effectively.

Q. Are spelling mistakes penalised for the IELTS Reading test?

Ans.  If the question does not specifically focus on correct spelling, spelling errors are generally not penalised in the IELTS Reading test. The focus will be on assessing your understanding of the passage, as well as how you can find and understand information. In order not to be misinterpreted by the examiner, it is important that you write legibly and spell correctly.

Q. Is grammar necessary for the IELTS Reading test?

Ans.  Good grammar skills are still important, although reading comprehension skills are primarily assessed in the IELTS Reading test. Understanding the structure of sentences and grammar rules is helpful in understanding complex passages, as well as accurate responses to questions. While the focus is on reading ability, a strong grasp of grammar enhances overall language proficiency, contributing to effective communication and performance in the IELTS Reading test.