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Changing Our Understanding Of Health Reading Answers: IELTS Reading Practice Test

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Updated on Jul 02, 2024, 11:57

The IELTS Reading section is designed to assess your ability to read and understand texts in English from academic and general sources. Within a 60-minute timeframe, you will encounter three passages and answer 40 questions. These questions are designed to evaluate your comprehension skills, including your ability to identify main ideas, grasp specific details, and infer meaning from the text. The passages cover diverse topics and writing styles, reflecting scenarios you may encounter in educational and professional environments.

 

In the passage "Changing Our Understanding Of Health," you will explore how scientific discoveries and societal shifts have influenced our perceptions of health and well-being. This text examines how factors such as medical research, cultural beliefs, and technological advancements have shaped our understanding of what it means to be healthy. Understanding this topic provides insights into the dynamic nature of health discourse and its implications for healthcare practices and public policies.

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1. Changing Our Understanding Of Health Reading Passage

You should spend approximately 20 minutes answering Questions 1 - 14 based on the Reading Passage below. This approach can help manage time effectively during a reading comprehension activity or exam. 

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2. Changing Our Understanding Of Health Question & Answers

Discover exciting and informative IELTS reading answers about Changing Our Understanding Of Health

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1.

Changing Our Understanding Of Health Reading Passage

General Information

  • Read Instructions: Understand each question before answering.
  • Manage Time: Spend about 20 minutes per passage.
  • Skim and Scan: Quickly get the main idea and find specific information.
  • Highlight Key Info: Underline essential words or phrases.
  • Answer All Questions: Attempt every question; no penalty for wrong answers.
  • Stay Focused: Avoid distractions and keep your attention on the task.
  • Check Spelling: Ensure correct spelling and grammar.
  • Transfer Answers Clearly: Write answers neatly on the answer sheet.
  • Don’t Dwell: Move on if stuck and return later.
  • Review: If time allows, review your answers.

 

 

 

 

Changing Our Understanding Of Health Reading Passage

 



 Paragraph A

The concept of health holds different meanings for different people and groups. These meanings of health have also changed over time. This change is no more evident than in Western society today when notions of health and health promotion are being challenged and expanded in new ways.

 

 

Paragraph B

For much of recent Western history, health has been viewed in the physical sense only. That is, good health has been connected to the smooth mechanical operation of the body, while ill health has been attributed to a breakdown in this machine. Health, in this sense, has been defined as the absence of disease or illness and is seen in medical terms. According to this view, creating health for people means providing medical care to treat or prevent disease and illness. During this period, there was an emphasis on providing clean water, improved sanitation and housing.

 

 

Paragraph C

 

In the late 1940s, the World Health Organisation challenged this physically and medically oriented view of health. They stated that 'health is a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being and is not merely the absence of disease' (WHO, 1946). Health and the person were seen more holistically (mind/body/spirit) and not just in physical terms. 

 

 

Paragraph D

The 1970s was a time of focusing on the prevention of disease and illness by emphasising the importance of the lifestyle and behaviour of the individual. Specific behaviours which were seen to increase the risk of disease, such as smoking, lack of fitness and unhealthy eating habits, were targeted. Creating health meant providing not only medical health care but also health promotion programs and policies that would help people maintain healthy behaviours and lifestyles. While this individualistic healthy lifestyle approach to health worked for some (the wealthy members of society), people experiencing poverty, unemployment, underemployment or little control over the conditions of their daily lives benefited little from this approach. This was largely because both the healthy lifestyles approach and the medical approach to health largely ignored the social and environmental conditions affecting the health of people.

 

 

Paragraph E

During the 1980s and 1990s, there has been a growing swing away from seeing lifestyle risks as the root cause of poor health. While lifestyle factors still remain important, health is also being viewed in terms of the social, economic and environmental contexts in which people live. This broad approach to health is called the socio-ecological view of health. The broad socio-ecological view of health was endorsed at the first International Conference of Health Promotion held in 1986 in Ottawa, Canada, where people from 38 countries agreed and declared that:

The fundamental conditions and resources for health are peace, shelter, education, food, a viable income, a stable ecosystem, sustainable resources, social justice and equity. Improvement in health requires a secure foundation in these basic requirements. (WHO, 1986)

It is clear from this statement that the creation of health is about much more than encouraging healthy individual behaviours and lifestyles and providing appropriate medical care. Therefore, the creation of health care must address issues such as poverty, pollution, urbanisation, natural resource depletion, social alienation, and poor working conditions. The social, economic and environmental contexts which contribute to the creation of health do not operate separately or independently of each other. Rather, they interact and are interdependent, and it is the complex interrelationships between them that determine the conditions that promote health. A broad socio-ecological view of health suggests that the promotion of health must include a strong social, economic and environmental focus.

 

 

Paragraph F

At the Ottawa Conference in 1986, a charter was developed which outlined new directions for health promotion based on the socio-ecological view of health. This charter, known as the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, remains the backbone of health action today. In exploring the scope of health promotion, it states that:

Good health is a major resource for social, economic and personal development and an important dimension of quality of life. Political, economic, social, cultural, environmental, behavioural and biological factors can all favour health or be harmful to it. (WHO, 1986)

The Ottawa Charter brings practical meaning and action to this broad notion of health promotion. It presents fundamental strategies and approaches to achieving health for all. The overall philosophy of health promotion, which guides these fundamental strategies and approaches, is 'enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health' (WHO, 1986).

 

2.

Changing Our Understanding Of Health Question & Answers

Discover exciting and informative IELTS reading answers about Changing Our Understanding Of Health

Questions and Answers 1-5
  • The reading passage has six paragraphs A-F from the list of headings below
  • Choose the most suitable headings for paragraph A-F from the list of headings below.
  • Write the appropriate numbers (i-ix) in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.
  • There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use them all.
  •  

     

     List of Headings

    I. Ottawa International Conference on Health Promotion.

    II. Holistic approach to health.

    III. The primary importance of environmental factors.

    IV. Healthy lifestyles approach to health.

    V. Changes in concepts of health in Western society.

    VI. Prevention of diseases and illness.

    VII. Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion.

    VIII. Definition of health in medical terms.

    IX. Socio-ecological view of health.

     


     

    1. Paragraph B

    2. Paragraph C

    3. Paragraph D

    4. Paragraph E

    5. Paragraph F

     

     

    Changing Our Understanding Of Health Reading Answers with Explanations (1-5)

     

     

    Type of question: Matching Headings

     

    In this question type, you will be asked to choose the correct heading for each paragraph from a list of headings provided. This type of question assesses your ability to understand the main idea or theme of each paragraph.

     

     

    How to best answer: 

     

    • Familiarise yourself with the list of headings before reading the paragraphs. This helps you know what to look for.
    • Identify the main idea or theme of each paragraph by looking for topic sentences or recurring themes
    • Find keywords or phrases that are similar to those in the headings. This can help you make connections.
    • Eliminate incorrect options that don't match any paragraphs to narrow down your choices.
    • Skim and Scan each paragraph efficiently to get a context about the content.



     

    1. VIII


     

    Reference

    From paragraph B: "Health in this sense has been defined as the absence of disease or illness and is seen in medical terms."


     

    Explanation

    This heading fits because paragraph B discusses health primarily from a medical perspective, defining it as the absence of disease. It reflects the historical emphasis on medical interventions and disease prevention.


     

    2. II


     

    Reference

    From paragraph C: "They stated that 'health is a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being and is not merely the absence of disease' (WHO, 1946)."


     

    Explanation

    This heading is appropriate as paragraph C introduces the holistic approach to health advocated by the WHO in the late 1940s. It emphasises that health encompasses physical, mental, and social aspects, moving beyond a narrow focus on disease.


     

    3. IV


     

    Reference

    From paragraph D:  "While this individualistic healthy lifestyle approach to health worked for some (the wealthy members of society), people experiencing poverty, unemployment, underemployment or little control over the conditions of their daily lives benefited little from this approach."


     

    Explanation

    This heading matches paragraph D, which discusses efforts in the 1970s to prevent disease by promoting healthy individual behaviours. It highlights the shift towards empowering individuals to adopt healthier lifestyles.


     

    4. IX


     

    Reference

    From paragraph E: "This broad approach to health is called the socio-ecological view of health."


     

    Explanation

    This heading is correct for paragraph E, which introduces a broader perspective on health that considers social, economic, and environmental factors. It reflects the shift in the 1980s and 1990s towards understanding health as influenced by the interconnectedness of these factors.


     

    5. VII


     

    Reference

    From paragraph F: "This charter, known as the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, remains the backbone of health action today."


     

    Explanation

    This heading is suitable for paragraph F, which discusses the Ottawa Charter developed at the 1986 International Conference on Health Promotion. It outlines strategies to promote health, emphasising empowerment and addressing broader determinants of health.

    Questions and Answers 6-9
  • Using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage, answer the following questions.
  • Write your answers in boxes 6-9 on your answer sheet.
  •  

     

    6. In which year did the World Health Organisation define health in terms of mental, physical and social well-being? 

    7. Which members of society benefited most from the healthy lifestyle approach to health? 

    8. Name the three broad areas which relate to people's health, according to the socio- ecological view of health. 

    9. During which decade were lifestyle risks seen as the major contributors to poor health? 

     

     

    Changing Our Understanding Of Health Reading Answers with Explanations (6-9)

     

     

    Type of question: Short answer 

     

    In this task, you will be given a set of questions with missing information, typically sentences with blank spaces. You must complete each statement with one word or phrase (as instructed). 

     

     

    How to answer: 

     

    • Read the questions first to understand what information you need to look for in the passage
    • Skim the passage and look for keywords 
    • You may have to look for synonyms or paraphrases to locate the answer 
    • Verify your answers and finalise them.



     

    6. 1946


     

    Reference

    From paragraph C: "They stated that 'health is a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being and is not merely the absence of disease' (WHO, 1946)."


     

    Explanation

    In paragraph C, the passage discusses how the World Health Organisation redefined health in the late 1940s to include not just physical health but also mental and social well-being. This broader definition marked a significant shift from viewing health solely through medical terms, emphasising a holistic approach to well-being.


     

    7. (the) wealthy (members) (of) (society)


     

    Reference

    From paragraph D: “While this individualistic healthy lifestyle approach to health worked for some (the wealthy members of society), people experiencing poverty, unemployment, underemployment or little control over the conditions of their daily lives benefited little from this approach.”


     

    Explanation

    Paragraph D highlights that the healthy lifestyle approach to health primarily benefited the wealthy members of society. This was because they had the financial resources and social privileges necessary to access and maintain healthy behaviours, unlike those facing socio-economic challenges.


     

    8. social, economic, and environmental


     

    Reference

    From paragraph E: "While lifestyle factors still remain important, health is also being viewed in terms of the social, economic and environmental contexts in which people live."


     

    Explanation

    According to paragraph E, the socio-ecological view of health considers health as interconnected with social, economic, and environmental factors. These three broad areas are essential components in understanding how various factors interact to influence individual and community health outcomes.


     

    9. (the) 1970’s


     

    Reference

    From paragraph 9: "The 1970s was a time of focusing on the prevention of disease and illness by emphasising the importance of the lifestyle and behaviour of the individual."


     

    Explanation

    Paragraph D explains that during the 1970s, there was a significant shift in focus towards lifestyle factors as major contributors to poor health. This era marked a departure from earlier medical-focused approaches, highlighting the influence of individual behaviours on health outcomes.

    Questions and Answers 10-14
    Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
    In boxes 10-14 on your answer sheet, write

    • YES if the statement agrees with the information given
    • NO if the statement contradicts the information given
    • NOT GIVEN if there is no information about this

     

     

    10. Doctors have been instrumental in improving living standards in Western society.

    11. The approach to health during the 1970s included the introduction of health awareness programs.

    12. The socio-ecological view of health recognises that lifestyle habits and the provision of adequate health care are critical factors governing health.

    13. The principles of the Ottawa Charter are considered to be out of date in the 1990s.

    14. In recent years, a number of additional countries have subscribed to the Ottawa Charter.


     

    Changing Our Understanding Of Health Reading Answers with Explanations (10-14)

     

     

    Type of question: Yes/No/Not Given(True/False/Not Given)

     

    In this question type, you are required to determine whether the statements provided agree with, contradict, or are not mentioned in the reading passage. 

     

     

    How to best answer: 


     

    • Understand what information is being presented and what is being asked.
    • Find relevant information in the reading passage that relates to the statement.
    • Determine if the statement agrees with, contradicts, or is not mentioned in the passage.
    • If the information is not explicitly provided in the passage, select 'Not Given' rather than making assumptions.
    • Base your answers solely on the information presented in the passage, avoiding personal opinions or outside knowledge.


     

    10. Not Given


     

    Reference

    From paragraph: Not available


     

    Explanation

    The passage does not mention whether doctors have been instrumental in improving living standards in Western society.


     

    11. Yes


     

    Reference

    From paragraph D: "Creating health meant providing not only medical health care but health promotion programs and policies which would help people maintain healthy behaviours and lifestyles."


     

    Explanation

    Paragraph D discusses the introduction of health promotion programs in the 1970s aimed at improving lifestyle habits and behaviours to prevent disease. Therefore, the statement that the approach to health during the 1970s included the introduction of health awareness programs aligns with the information provided.


     

    12. No


     

    Reference

    From paragraph E: "The creation of health is about much more than encouraging healthy individual behaviours and lifestyles and providing appropriate medical care."


     

    Explanation

    Paragraph E outlines the socio-ecological view of health, emphasising that health is influenced by social, economic, and environmental factors beyond individual behaviours and medical care. Thus, the statement that the socio-ecological view of health recognizes lifestyle habits and the provision of adequate health care as critical factors governing health is contradicted by the passage.



     

    13. No


     

    Reference

    From paragraph F: "This charter, known as the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, remains the backbone of health action today."


     

    Explanation

    Paragraph F asserts that the Ottawa Charter remains the backbone of health action today, indicating its continued relevance beyond the 1990s. Therefore, the statement that the principles of the Ottawa Charter are considered to be out of date in the 1990s is not supported by the passage.



     

    14. Not Given


     

    Reference

    From paragraph: Not available


     

    Explanation

    The passage does not provide information on whether additional countries have subscribed to the Ottawa Charter in recent years. Therefore, the answer to this question is not given based on the information provided in the passage.

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    FAQs

    Q. Can I use a dictionary during the IELTS Reading test?

    Ans. No, the use of dictionaries or any other external resources is not allowed during the IELTS Reading test. You must rely solely on your knowledge and understanding of the text provided. Building a strong vocabulary and practising reading comprehension skills before the test will help you handle unfamiliar words and phrases.


     

    Q. What strategies can help me answer True/False/Not Given questions?

    Ans. Read the statements carefully, locate the relevant information in the passage, and determine if the statement matches (True), contradicts (False), or is not mentioned (Not Given) in the text. Practise these question types to improve accuracy. Understanding the difference between "False" and "Not Given" is crucial, as it often confuses test-takers.


     

    Q. How can I handle unknown words in the reading passages?

    Ans. Try to understand the meaning from the context of the sentence or surrounding text. Focus on the overall meaning of the passage and the main ideas rather than getting stuck on individual words. Using contextual clues can help you infer the meaning of unfamiliar words, improving your comprehension and overall performance.