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Climate Change Reveals Ancient Reading Answers: IELTS Reading Practice Test

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Updated on Jul 09, 2024, 18:50

The IELTS Reading section assesses your ability to understand academic and general interest texts in English. It consists of three passages, each progressively more challenging, sourced from books, journals, magazines, and newspapers. You'll encounter a variety of question types designed to test your comprehension skills, from identifying main ideas and supporting details to understanding implicit meanings and writer's attitudes.

 

 

To better prepare for the IELTS Reading section, you can take an IELTS practice test, which provides a realistic experience of the types of texts and questions you will face in the actual exam.

 

 

The “Climate Change Reveals Ancient” passage explores how environmental shifts are uncovering archaeological discoveries that provide insights into past civilisations. This topic delves into the intersection of climate science and archaeology, highlighting how changing climatic conditions reveal remnants of ancient societies and their adaptation strategies.

 

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1. Climate Change Reveals Ancient Reading Passage

You should spend approximately 20 minutes answering Questions 1 - 13 based on the Reading Passage below. This approach can help manage time effectively during a reading comprehension activity or exam.

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2. Climate Change Reveals Ancient Reading Answers Question & Answers

Discover exciting and informative IELTS reading answers about climate change reveals ancient Reading Answers

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1.

Climate Change Reveals Ancient Reading Passage

General Information

  • Read Instructions: Understand each question before answering.
  • Manage Time: Spend about 20 minutes per passage.
  • Skim and Scan: Quickly get the main idea and find specific information.
  • Highlight Key Info: Underline essential words or phrases.
  • Answer All Questions: Attempt every question; no penalty for wrong answers.
  • Stay Focused: Avoid distractions and keep your attention on the task.
  • Check Spelling: Ensure correct spelling and grammar.
  • Transfer Answers Clearly: Write answers neatly on the answer sheet.
  • Don’t Dwell: Move on if stuck and return later.
  • Review: If time allows, review your answers.

 

 

Climate Change Reveals Ancient Reading Passage 

 

 

Paragraph A

 

As the Earth's climate warms, ancient ice fields are shrinking in Norway's highest mountains, well above the treeline. As the ice has melted, it has been giving up the treasures it has kept safe for the past 6,000 years. These include things like arrows and skis from Viking Age traders. And these artefacts have given archaeologists some surprising insights into how ancient Norwegians made a living.

 

Paragraph B

 

Archaeological sites don't find a lot of natural things like textiles and hides. This is because they don't last long if they aren't protected from the microorganisms that cause decay. Extreme cold is a good way to keep artefacts relatively fresh for a few thousand years, but once they are thawed out, they start to break down pretty quickly. As ice cover melts around the world because of climate change, glacial archaeologists have to race against the clock to find new artefacts, keep them safe, and study them. If something fragile dries out and gets blown away by the wind, it might be lost to science very soon. On the other hand, if an arrow is exposed and then covered by snow, it might be well-preserved. Glacial archaeologists have to be very organised when they work in the field because they can't predict what will happen.

 

Paragraph C

 

A group of archaeologists, including Lars Pil of the Oppland County Council in Norway and James Barrett of the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, studied patches of ice in Oppland, which is in the middle of Norway and has some of the country's highest mountains. Reindeer used to gather on these ice patches in the late summer to get away from biting insects, and since the late Stone Age, hunters have followed them. In addition, trade routes ran through the mountain passes of Oppland, connecting settlements in Norway to the rest of Europe. The slow but steady movement tends to destroy anything at their bases, so the team focused on still patches of ice, mostly above 1,400 metres. That ice is found in fields of frost-weathered boulders, fallen rocks, and exposed bedrock that is covered by snow for nine months of the year. "Fieldwork is hard work—hiking with all our gear and often camping on permafrost—but very rewarding. Barrett says, "You're saving the archaeology, bringing the melting ice to a wider audience, finding a unique environmental history, and really connecting with the natural environment."

 

Paragraph D

 

Archaeologists found more than 2,000 artefacts at the edges of the melting ice patches. These things told a story that went from 4,000 BCE to the beginning of the Renaissance in the 14th century. A lot of the objects have to do with hunting. Archers were easy to lose, and hunters often threw away broken bows rather than carrying them all the way home. Hunters going through the high mountain passes of Oppland could have used other things, too, like tools, skis, and horse tack.

 

Paragraph E

 

Barrett and his team radiocarbon dated 153 of the artefacts and compared the results to the timing of major environmental changes in the region, such as cooling or warming periods, and major social and economic shifts, such as the growth of farming settlements and the spread of international trade networks leading up to the Viking Age. Many artefacts were discovered from certain historical periods, suggesting that human activity in the mountains was high at the time. However, during other times, there were hardly any clues about life.

 

Paragraph F

 

Barrett found the timing of these epochs to be particularly surprising. The mountains of Oppland are intimidating, and during times of extreme cold, they can block the passages leading to the higher altitudes, making travel there nearly impossible. In the Late Antique Little Lee Age, a brief period of deeper-than-usual cold that occurred about 536–600 CE, archaeologists speculated that humans would avoid living at higher altitudes. However, it became clear that hunters kept frequently travelling into the mountains despite the changing temperature, as evidenced by the quantity of items they reportedly discarded there.

 

"Remarkably, the findings from the ice may have remained through this period," says Barrett. "This may show that the value of mountain hunting increased to complement poor agricultural harvests during times of low temperatures." The increased reliance on hunting would have been necessary since widespread crop failures would have resulted from a colder turn in the Scandinavian climate.

 

Paragraph G

 

The Viking Age began in the 700s and 900s CE, and many of the artefacts unearthed by Barrett's crew date from that time period. During this time, trade routes connecting Scandinavia with Europe and the Middle East were growing. Even though ships are what first come to mind when discussing Scandinavian expansion, these new findings demonstrate the importance of terrestrial routes, such as the mountain passes of Oppland. Growing Norwegian cities and export markets would have increased the demand for hides for insulation and antlers for practical items like combs. Hunters must have been doing well.

 

Paragraph H

 

A great deal of prehistoric and historical artefacts are still likely frozen in the mountains of Norway. Looking at the dates for their sample of 153 artefacts, Barrett's team observed a period with absolutely no artefacts, between 3,800 and 2,200 BCE. Indeed, such artefacts are quite uncommon in any part of Norway. Researchers speculate that this is because many of these artefacts have either dissolved or are still frozen in the ice. What this means is that in the future, as the ice melts, archaeologists may be able to retrieve some of these artefacts.

 

————— 

*Viking  Age:  a  period of  European history from around  700  CE  to around  1050  CE  when Scandinavian Vikings migrated throughout Europe by means of trade and warfare.

————— 

**The Stone Age: a period in early history that began about 3.4 million years ago

 

2.

Climate Change Reveals Ancient Reading Answers Question & Answers

Discover exciting and informative IELTS reading answers about climate change reveals ancient

Questions and Answers 1-6
  • Reading Passage has eight sections, A — H. Which section contains the following information?

 

Write the correct letter, A-H, in boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet.

 

  1. Examples of items that would have been traded.
  2. A reference to the pressure archaeologists are under to work quickly.
  3. An explanation for weapons being left behind in the mountains.
  4. A reference to the physical difficulties involved in an archaeological expedition.
  5. An explanation of why less food may have been available.
  6. A reference to the possibility of future archaeological discoveries.

 


Climate Change Reveals Ancient Reading Answers with Explanations (1-6)

 

 

Type of question: Matching information

 

In this question type, you will be asked to match specific pieces of information, often dates, names, or events, from the reading passage with corresponding options provided in the question.

 

How to best answer: 

 

  • Read each statement carefully to understand the specific information being asked for.
  • Scan the passage for relevant dates or events in the reading passage that corresponds to each statement.
  • Eliminate incorrect options that do not match the information found in the passage.
  • Match the remaining options based on the information provided in the passage.
  • Verify your answers to ensure they match the information in the passage before finalising them.


 

1. G.

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph G: “Growing Norwegian cities and export markets would have increased the demand for hides for insulation and antlers for practical items like combs. Hunters must have been doing well.” 

 

Explanation

 

This answer identifies traded items during the Viking Age, specifically hides and antlers, which were highly sought-after commodities due to the economic growth of Norwegian cities and the expansion of trade networks across Europe. These items served practical purposes like insulation and crafting tools, reflecting the flourishing economic activities and cultural exchanges during that period.

 

2. B


 Reference:

 

From paragraph B:  “As ice cover melts around the world because of climate change, glacial archaeologists have to race against the clock to find new artefacts, keep them safe, and study them. If something fragile dries out and gets blown away by the wind, it might be lost to science very soon.”

 

Explanation

 

This explanation underscores the pressing challenges faced by glacial archaeologists amidst global climate change. As ice cover melts rapidly, archaeologists race against time to locate and preserve artefacts before they deteriorate or are lost forever. The urgency stems from the fragile nature of thawing artefacts, which, if exposed to elements like wind, quickly degrade, threatening their scientific value and the insights they could provide into ancient cultures and environments.

 

3. D

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph D: “A lot of the objects have to do with hunting. Archers were easy to lose, and hunters often threw away broken bows rather than carrying them all the way home.”

 

Explanation

 

The answer highlights the practical decision-making of hunters in mountainous regions, where they often abandoned broken bows and arrows rather than carry them back. This practice, observed over centuries, resulted in the accumulation of archaeological finds related to hunting activities, shedding light on historical hunting practices and the challenges of survival in remote, harsh landscapes.

 

4. C

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph C: “The slow but steady movement tends to destroy anything at their bases, so the team focused on still patches of ice, mostly above 1,400 metres. That ice is found in fields of frost-weathered boulders, fallen rocks, and exposed bedrock that is covered by snow for nine months of the year. "Fieldwork is hard work—hiking with all our gear and often camping on permafrost—but very rewarding.”


Explanation

 

This explanation delves into the physical demands of archaeological fieldwork in mountainous terrain. It details the rigorous tasks of hiking with heavy gear, camping on permafrost, and navigating through unstable conditions. These challenges underscore the dedication and resilience required of archaeologists working in extreme environments to uncover and document artefacts that provide crucial insights into ancient civilisations and their interactions with natural landscapes.

 

5. F

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph F: “The increased reliance on hunting would have been necessary since widespread crop failures would have resulted from a colder turn in the Scandinavian climate.”

 

Explanation

 

This answer explains that during periods of colder climate in Scandinavia, agricultural productivity declined, leading to food shortages. Consequently, communities relied more heavily on hunting for sustenance, as evidenced by archaeological findings of hunting tools and artefacts. This historical context illuminates the adaptive strategies of ancient societies in response to environmental changes and their reliance on natural resources for survival.


 

6. H

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph H: “What this means is that in the future, as the ice melts, archaeologists may be able to retrieve some of these artefacts.”

 

Explanation

 

It suggests that ongoing climate change, leading to the melting of ice, holds promise for future archaeological discoveries. As ice thaws, artefacts previously frozen for centuries may become accessible for study and excavation. This potential offers archaeologists new opportunities to uncover and analyse ancient artefacts, providing valuable insights into past cultures, environments, and human adaptations to changing climates over millennia.


Read more about 350+ Vocabulary words for IELTS: Difficult & New English Words List For 2024

Questions and Answers 7-9
  • Complete the summary below.
  • Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
  • Write your answers in boxes 7-9 on your answer sheet.

 

Archaeological sites don't find a lot of organic things like animal skins and clothes very often. They don't have much protection against 7.)________________ , so they break down pretty quickly. This isn't always true, though. If the temperature is low enough, fragile artefacts can last for thousands of years.

A group of archaeologists has been working in the mountains of Norway's Oppland to find artefacts that have been exposed to the melting ice. In the past, these mountains were used as trade routes, and 8.)____________  would gather there in the summer to stay away from 9.)_________ on lower ground. Archaeologists are interested in the things left behind by the people who lived in and used these mountains.


 

Climate Change Reveals Ancient Reading Answers with Explanations (7-9)

 

Type of question: Summary completion

 

Under this task, you will be given a summary with incomplete sentences. However, you will not be given any list of words/phrases to choose the missing information. You must refer to the main passage to fill in the missing information. 

 

How to answer: 

 

  • Read the summary to understand what information it’s missing
  • Identify keywords and locate them in the main passage to find missing words 
  • Review the context of the words you’ve chosen to match the summary
  • Finalise your answers 

 

7. Microorganisms/ microorganisms

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph B: “This is because they don't last long if they aren't protected from the microorganisms that cause decay.”

 

Explanation

 

 Fragile artefacts like textiles and hides decay quickly at archaeological sites due to microorganisms present in the environment. Cold temperatures can preserve these artefacts for extended periods by slowing down microbial activity.

 

8. Reindeer

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph C: “Reindeer used to gather on these ice patches in the late summer to get away from biting insects, and since the late Stone Age, hunters have followed them.”

 

Explanation

Reindeer gathered on the ice patches in Norway's Oppland mountains during late summer to escape biting insects. This seasonal behaviour attracted hunters who left artefacts behind, making these areas valuable for archaeological study.

 

9. Insects

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph 10: “Reindeer used to gather on these ice patches in the late summer to get away from biting insects, and since the late Stone Age, hunters have followed them.”


Explanation

 

Reindeer gathered on the ice patches in Norway's Oppland mountains during late summer to avoid biting insects present at lower altitudes. This natural behaviour created opportunities for archaeologists to study artefacts left behind by ancient hunters.


Refer to tips and tricks for the IELTS Reading section to achieve a high band score. 

Questions and Answers 10-11
  • Choose TWO letters, A—E.
  • Write the correct letters in boxes 10 and 11 on your answer sheet.

 

Q) Which TWO of the following are true about the Viking Age, according to the author?

 

  1. Hunters at this time benefited from increased demand for goods.
  2. The beginning of the period saw the greatest growth in the wealth of Vikings.
  3. Vikings did not rely on ships alone to transport goods.
  4.  Norwegian towns at this time attracted traders from around the world.
  5. Vikings were primarily interested in their trading links with the Middle East.


 

Climate Change Reveals Ancient Reading Answers with Explanations (10-11)

 

Type of question: Multiple choice questions

 

In this question type, you are asked to answer the question followed by several options, typically lettered A, B, C, or D. The task is to select the correct answer from the given choices based on the information provided in the reading passage.

 

How to best answer: 

 

  • Read the question carefully and understand what it asks.
  • Pay attention to the keywords in the question.
  • Skim the passage quickly to locate relevant information.
  • Eliminate the clearly incorrect options.
  • Select the answer that best fits the information in the passage.


 

10. A

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph G: “Growing Norwegian cities and export markets would have increased the demand for hides for insulation and antlers for practical items like combs. Hunters must have been doing well.”

 

Explanation

 

The answer 'A' is supported by Paragraph G, where it mentions that the growth of Norwegian cities and export markets during the Viking Age led to an increased demand for goods like hides and antlers. This economic activity suggests that hunters who could supply these materials likely thrived during this period due to the rising demand.

 

11. C

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph G: “Even though ships are what first come to mind when discussing Scandinavian expansion, these new findings demonstrate the importance of terrestrial routes, such as the mountain passes of Oppland.”


Explanation

 

The answer is correct as it indicates that despite the common association of Vikings with maritime trade, the discovery of artefacts in Oppland's mountain passes underscores the importance of land routes during this era. This suggests that Vikings utilised terrestrial routes alongside their maritime activities, demonstrating a broader logistical strategy in their trading networks.

To improve your vocabulary for the IELTS Reading section, read here.

Questions and Answers 12-13
  • Choose TWO letters, A—E.
  • Write the correct letters in boxes 12 and 13 on your answer sheet.

 

Q) Which TWO of the following are TWO things that the writer says about what Barrett's team found?

 

  1. The only things found in the higher mountain passes were skis and ski gear.
  2. Hunters would go into the mountains even when it was very cold.
  3. There weren't that many artefacts from certain time periods.
  4. Some of the results from the radiocarbon dating of artefacts were not reliable.
  5. In Oppland, more artefacts were found than anywhere else in the mountains.


 

Climate Change Reveals Ancient Reading Answers with Explanations (12-13)

 

Refer to the above question type(10-11) for information.

 

 

12. B

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph F: “However, it became clear that hunters kept frequently travelling into the mountains despite the changing temperature, as evidenced by the quantity of items they reportedly discarded there.”

 

Explanation

 

In Paragraph F, it is stated that hunters persisted in travelling to the mountains despite varying temperatures, as evidenced by the significant number of items they left behind. This supports the answer choice B, indicating that hunters frequented the mountains even during cold periods.

 

13. C

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph E: “Many artefacts were discovered from certain historical periods, suggesting that human activity in the mountains was high at the time. However, during other times, there were hardly any clues about life.”

 

Explanation

 

Paragraph E mentions that numerous artefacts were discovered from specific historical periods, indicating intense human activity during those times. Conversely, there were periods with few traces of human life. This aligns with answer choice C, which suggests that fewer artefacts were found from certain time periods compared to others in Oppland.


 

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FAQs

Q. Are the reading passages the same for the Academic and General Training versions?

Ans. No, the reading passages differ between the Academic and General Training versions of the IELTS. Academic Reading passages are more challenging and taken from textbooks, journals, and academic sources, while General Training Reading passages are more accessible and reflect everyday situations found in the workplace and social contexts.

Q. How are the IELTS Reading scores calculated?

Ans. In the IELTS Reading test, scores are determined by the number of correct answers. For each correct answer, you receive one point, and there are no deductions for incorrect answers. These scores are then converted into a band score on a scale of 0 to 9, with 9 being the highest achievable score.
 

Q. Can I write on the question paper during the test?

Ans. Yes, you can write on the question paper during the IELTS Reading test. This allows you to underline key points, jot down notes, and brainstorm answers before transferring them to the answer sheet. This process can help you keep track of key points and ideas as you work through the test, making it easier to organise your thoughts and tackle the questions efficiently.