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Population Viability Analysis Reading Answers: IELTS Reading Practice Test

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Updated on Jul 02, 2024, 11:57

The IELTS Reading section is designed to assess your reading skills. In this section, you will encounter a variety of texts, ranging from newspapers and magazines to academic journals. You will be tested on your ability to comprehend, analyse, and interpret the information presented within these texts.
 

Key highlights of the IELTS Reading section:

 

  • There are three passages in the Academic version and four passages in the General Training version.
  • You have 60 minutes to complete the entire section.
  • You must answer 40 questions based on the given passages.
  • Question types include multiple choice, matching headings, True/False/Not Given, sentence completion, and others.
     

In this passage, you will delve into the world of “Zoo Conservation Programmes”, exploring the vital role that zoos play in preserving endangered species and promoting biodiversity. You will learn about the efforts undertaken by zoos worldwide to protect and conserve threatened animal species, as well as the ethical considerations and controversies surrounding such initiatives.

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1. Population Viability Analysis Reading Passage

You should spend approximately 20 minutes answering Questions 1 - 13 based on the Reading Passage below. This approach can help manage time effectively during a reading comprehension activity or exam. 

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2. Population Viability Analysis Reading Question & Answers

Discover exciting and informative IELTS reading answers about Population Viability Analysis

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1.

Population Viability Analysis Reading Passage

General Information

  • Read Instructions: Understand each question before answering.
  • Manage Time: Spend about 20 minutes per passage.
  • Skim and Scan: Quickly get the main idea and find specific information.
  • Highlight Key Info: Underline essential words or phrases.
  • Answer All Questions: Attempt every question; no penalty for wrong answers.
  • Stay Focused: Avoid distractions and keep your attention on the task.
  • Check Spelling: Ensure correct spelling and grammar.
  • Transfer Answers Clearly: Write answers neatly on the answer sheet.
  • Don’t Dwell: Move on if stuck and return later.
  • Review: If time allows, review your answers.

 

 

 

 

Population Viability Analysis Reading Passage


 

 

Part A

 

Paragraph 1

To make political decisions about the size and kind of forest in a region, it is essential to comprehend the implications of those decisions. Population viability analysis (PVA) is a tool for estimating the effect of forests on the ecosystem. It is a tool that predicts the possibility of extinction of a species in a certain area over a period of time. It has been used successfully in the United States to provide input on resource exploitation decisions and to help wildlife managers. There is now a huge possibility for using population viability to aid wildlife management in Australia’s forests.

 

Paragraph 2

A species vanishes when the last person dies. This observation is a helpful starting point for any talk of destruction, as it highlights the part of luck and chance in the process of destruction. To make a prediction about destruction, we need to comprehend the methods that contribute to it, and these are the four wide types discussed below.

 

Part B

 

Paragraph 3

Early attempts to assume population viability were based on population uncertainty. Whether a person will survive from one year to the next is frequently a prospect. Some couples can produce multiple pups in the same year, while others will not produce anything in the same year. Small populations will fluctuate greatly due to the inconsistency of birth and death, and these likely fluctuations will, on average, cause species extinction even as the population size increases. Considering only this uncertainty of reproductive ability, extinction is not possible if the number of people in a population is over 50 and the population is expanding.

 

Paragraph 4 

A small amount of breeding cannot be avoided by small populations. This is especially true if you have a very small number of genders. For illustration, if there are only 20 persons in a race and only one man, then all future persons in that species must be descended from that one man. For most animal species, such individuals are probably not able to survive and reproduce. Increases the chance of breeding extinction.

 

Paragraph 5

Variation in a species is the raw material from which natural choice operates. Without genetic variation, a species does not have the ability to grow and adapt to changes in its environment or to new predators and new illnesses. Loss of genetic variation associated with population decline may contribute to the possibility of extinction.

 

Paragraph 6

A recent study shows that other aspects need to be considered. Australia's environment is highly volatile from year to year. These changes add another degree of uncertainty to the survival of many organisms. Disasters such as fire, flood, drought, or epidemics can reduce the population to a small part of their average level. When these two additional uncertainties are paid for, the population needed to sustain a few hundred years can increase by thousands.

 

Part C

 

Paragraph 7

Apart from these processes, we need to keep in mind the population distribution. A species that happens in five isolated areas does not have the possibility of extinction of a race of 100 persons in the same place with 20 persons each.

 

Paragraph 8

Where trees are cut down, forest-dwelling creatures are forced to flee. Ground-dwelling plants can return within a decade. Nevertheless, arboreal marsupials (i.e., tree-dwelling animals) have not been able to regain pre-recorded density for more than a century. As more forests are destroyed, the number of animals will further decrease. Regardless of the theory or model we prefer, reducing the size of the population reduces the genetic variation of the population and raises the probability of extinction due to any or all of the methods listed above. So, it is a scientific truth that expanding the loaded area in any region will boost the chances of extinction of forest-dependent animals.

2.

Population Viability Analysis Reading Question & Answers

Discover exciting and informative IELTS reading answers about Population Viability Analysis

Questions and Answers 1-5
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet, write

  • YES if the statement agrees with the information given
  • NO if the statement contradicts the information given
  • NOT GIVEN if there is no information about this

 

 

1. Population viability analysis (PVA) is a tool for assessing the impact of forests on the ecosystem.

2. There is now less possibility for using population viability to aid wildlife management in Australia’s forests.

3. Early tries to assume population viability was based on population uncertainty

4. Destruction of the species in a particular area is a natural thing.

5. All pairs can produce multiple babies in the same year.



 

Population Viability Analysis Reading Answers with Explanations (1-5)

 

Type of question: Yes/No/Not Given(True/False/Not Given)

 

In this question type, you are required to determine whether the statements provided agree with, contradict, or are not mentioned in the reading passage. 

 

How to best answer: 
 

  • Understand what information is being presented and what is being asked.
  • Find relevant information in the reading passage that relates to the statement.
  • Determine if the statement agrees with, contradicts, or is not mentioned in the passage.
  • If the information is not explicitly provided in the passage, select 'Not Given' rather than making assumptions.
  • Base your answers solely on the information presented in the passage, avoiding personal opinions or outside knowledge.

 

 

1. Yes

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph 1: "To make political decisions about the size and kind of forest in a region, it is essential to comprehend the implications of those decisions. Population viability analysis (PVA) is a tool for estimating the effect of forests on the ecosystem."
 

Explanation

This line clearly describes the purpose of PVA, stating that it is used to understand the implications of political decisions on forest size and type by estimating their effect on the ecosystem. This confirms that PVA assesses the impact of forests on ecosystems.


 

2. No

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph 1: "It has been used successfully in the United States to provide input on resource exploitation decisions and to help wildlife managers. There is now a huge possibility for using population viability to aid wildlife management in Australia’s forests."
 

Explanation

The passage highlights the successful use of PVA in the U.S. and emphasises a significant potential for its application in Australia. This directly contradicts the statement that there is less possibility for using PVA in Australia, indicating instead a growing potential.


 

3. Yes

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph 3:  "Early attempts to assume population viability were based on population uncertainty. Whether a person will survive from one year to the next is frequently a prospect."
 

Explanation

This line indicates that initial efforts to estimate population viability relied heavily on the uncertainty of individual survival rates from year to year. This supports the statement by confirming that early PVA attempts focused on population uncertainty.


 

4. Not Given

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph: N.A.

 

Explanation

The passage does not address the concept of species destruction as a natural phenomenon. There is no discussion or statement in the provided text that comments on whether species extinction in a particular area is natural or not, leading to a "Not Given" response.


 

5. No

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph 3: "Some couples can produce multiple pups in the same year, while others will not produce anything in the same year."

 

Explanation

The passage highlights the variability in reproductive success, noting that while some pairs may produce multiple offspring, others may not produce any. This contradicts the statement that all pairs can produce multiple babies in the same year, making the statement incorrect.

Questions and Answers 6-10
  • Complete the sentences below.
  • Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS/NUMBERS from the passage for each answer.

 

 

6. Extinction is not possible if the number of people in a population is over ___________ and the ___________ is expanding.

7. If there are only 20 persons in a race and only one man, then all future persons in that species must be ___________ from that one man

8.  Variation in a _________ is the raw material from which natural choice operates.

9. Loss of genetic variation associated with population reduction may contribute to the chance of _____________.

10. Australia's environment is highly ______________ from year to year.

 

Population Viability Analysis Reading Answers with Explanations (6-10)

 

Type of question: Sentence Completion

 

In this question type, you are required to fill in the blanks in a given sentence with words or phrases taken directly from the passage. These questions test your ability to understand specific details and information presented in the text.

 

How to answer: 

 

  • Read the sentence carefully to understand the context.
  • Identify keywords or clues that can help you find the answer in the passage.
  • Scan the passage for relevant information, focusing on the area around the blank.
  • Choose the answer that fits grammatically and contextually.
  • Verify your answers and finalise them.


 

6. 50, population

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph 3: "Considering only this uncertainty of reproductive ability, extinction is not possible if the number of people in a population is over 50 and the population is expanding."
 

Explanation

The passage explains that reproductive variability alone does not lead to extinction if a population exceeds 50 individuals and is growing. This suggests a threshold population size that ensures sufficient genetic diversity and resilience against random fluctuations in birth and death rates.


 

7. descended

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph 4: "For illustration, if there are only 20 persons in a race and only one man, then all future persons in that species must be descended from that one man."

 

Explanation

The paragraph illustrates the genetic bottleneck effect in small populations, where limited breeding individuals leads to a lack of genetic diversity. All offspring being descended from a single individual increases the risk of inbreeding and genetic disorders, which can threaten population viability.


 

8. species

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph 5: "Variation in a species is the raw material from which natural choice operates."

 

Explanation

The passage emphasises that genetic variation within a species is crucial for evolution and adaptation. Without this variation, a species cannot effectively respond to environmental changes, new predators, or diseases, ultimately compromising its survival.


 

9. extinction

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph 5: "Loss of genetic variation associated with population decline may contribute to the possibility of extinction."
 

Explanation

The paragraph underscores the relationship between genetic diversity and population health. A reduction in genetic variation, often due to a decrease in population size, impairs a species' ability to adapt and survive, thereby increasing the risk of extinction.


 

10. volatile

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph 6: "Australia's environment is highly volatile from year to year."

 

Explanation

The passage describes the unpredictable and extreme variability of Australia's environment, which adds significant uncertainty to species survival. Factors like fires, floods, and droughts create harsh conditions that can drastically reduce population sizes, further complicating conservation efforts.

Questions and Answers 11-13
  • Choose the correct letter: A, B, C, or D

 

 

11. Disasters such as fire, flood, drought, or epidemics can reduce the population to a 

 

A. small part of their low level
B. small part of their high level
C. small part of their average level
D. huge part of their average level

 

12. Ground-dwelling plants can return within 

 

A. a century
B. 10 years
C. 20 years
D. a decade

 

13. Reducing the size of the population reduces the genetic variation of the 

 

A. species
B. population
C. plants
D. trees


 

Population Viability Analysis Reading Answers with Explanations (11-13)

 

Type of question: Multiple choice questions

 

In this question type, you are asked to answer the question followed by several options, typically lettered A, B, C, or D. The task is to select the correct answer from the given choices based on the information provided in the reading passage.

 

How to best answer: 
 

  • Read the question carefully and understand what it asks.
  • Pay attention to the keywords in the question.
  • Skim the passage quickly to locate relevant information.
  • Eliminate the clearly incorrect options.
  • Select the answer that best fits the information in the passage


 

11. C - small part of the average level

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph 6: "Disasters such as fire, flood, drought, or epidemics can reduce the population to a small part of their average level."
 

Explanation

This line specifically indicates that disasters can significantly decrease population sizes to a fraction of their average levels. It emphasises the substantial impact that environmental uncertainties can have on population stability, which aligns perfectly with the answer given.


 

12. D - a decade

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph 8: "Ground-dwelling plants can return within a decade."

 

Explanation

The passage clearly states that ground-dwelling plants have the capacity to reestablish themselves within a ten-year period after being disrupted. This information highlights the resilience and recovery speed of these plants, directly corresponding to the answer provided.


 

13. B - population

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph 8: “Regardless of the theory or model we prefer, reducing the size of the population reduces the genetic variation of the population and raises the probability of extinction due to any or all of the methods listed above.”
 

Explanation

This line explicitly notes that a decrease in population size leads to a loss of genetic diversity, increasing the likelihood of extinction. This connection between population size and genetic variation underpins the critical importance of maintaining larger population sizes for species survival, which is accurately reflected in the answer.

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FAQs

Q. How is the IELTS reading test conducted?

Ans. The IELTS reading test is conducted in a controlled environment at an authorised test centre. You'll receive a booklet containing three passages with questions. You'll have 60 minutes to read the passages and answer the questions, which may include multiple-choice, matching headings, and completing sentences, among others.


 

Q. Can I retake the IELTS Reading test alone?

Ans. Yes, you can independently retake each section of the IELTS test, such as the reading section. The format and timing replicate those of the corresponding section in the complete test, which saves time by not requiring you to complete other skills.


 

Q. What are good tips/practices for IELTS Reading preparation?

Ans. To do well on the IELTS reading exam, you need to get to know the test format, read faster, learn more words, practice with sample tests, improve your skimming and scanning skills, and read different materials. Practising regularly and staying dedicated will help you improve these skills and get a high score on the test.