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The Development of Travel Under the Ocean Reading Answers: IELTS Reading Practice Test

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Updated on Jul 02, 2024, 11:57

Technological progress over the past decades has led to a dramatic shift in how people explore and navigate oceans around the globe. The once elusive depths beneath the ocean's surface, teeming with mystery and complexity, have become a focal point for scientific research and technological innovation. 
 

This passage takes us on a fascinating journey through the development of travel beneath the ocean, tracing the evolution of submarines and underwater habitats.


 

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1. The Development of Travel Under the Ocean Reading Passage

You should spend approximately 20 minutes answering Questions 1 - 13 based on the Reading Passage below.

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2. The Development of Travel Under the Ocean Reading Question & Answers

Discover exciting and informative IELTS reading answers about The Development of Travel Under the Ocean.

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1.

The Development of Travel Under the Ocean Reading Passage

General Instructions
General Instructions for IELTS Reading:

  • You will have 60 minutes to complete the entire reading test.
  • The test consists of three reading passages with a total of 40 questions.
  • The texts may be taken from books, magazines, journals, or newspapers.
  • You will receive an answer sheet and should write your answers on it.
  • The questions will be in different formats, such as multiple-choice, matching, sentence completion, and summary completion.
  • The reading passages will increase in difficulty as you progress through the test.
  • You cannot bring any electronic devices, including mobile phones, into the test room.

 

 

 

 

  The Development of Travel Under the Ocean Reading Passage
 

Paragraph 1

For millennia, humans have been intrigued by what lies beneath the sea and although submarine travel was attempted from time to time, it did not become commonplace until the middle of last century. Several clever and innovative people had experimented with designs for submersible boats before then, but there was much loss of life and little success.

 

Paragraph 2

There had long been use of a primitive diving bell for exploratory purposes, but it was as a war machine that the submarine came into its own. The first development in the history of American submarines was a small submersible with a hand-cranked screw-like oar and a crew of one. It was built before the American Revolutionary War (1775—1783) but was adapted for use against the British during this war. Although its pilot twice failed to fasten explosive devices to British ships before losing control of his vessel, he escaped harm.

 

Paragraph 3

In 1800, an American inventor, Robert Fulton, designed an underwater machine that he called the Nautilus. This version brought in features that can still be found in some modern submarines, notably adjustable diving planes for better underwater manoeuvring, dual systems of propulsion, and a compressed air system that allowed it to stay down for about four hours without surfacing.
 

Paragraph 4

Development of submersible vessels lagged a long way behind the continued progress in the design of surface ships until the American Civil War (1861-1865) when both sides tried out various designs. One of those, called the Hunley — named after its 8nancier rather than its inventor, sank twice during training missions with 11 crew members losing their lives, including Hunley himself. Notwithstanding these failures, it was commissioned again in 1864 to attack a ship in Charleston Harbor. A torpedo was used to strike and scuttle the ship – an 8th in naval history, but the submarine never reappeared, and once again, the whole crew perished. Its potential had been recognised, but there still remained the challenge of operating safely under the water.
 

Paragraph 5

The US Navy could appreciate the strategic benefits of having submarines in its fleet and held a competition to encourage the design and construction of these underwater craft. The inventor, John Holland, won the competition, and it was his sixth prototype, the Holland, that the Navy bought and added to its fleet in 1900. This submarine was quite different from previous designs. It was propelled by a gasoline engine that turned a propeller while the vessel was on the surface. When it submerged, the engine ran a generator to charge batteries to operate an electric motor. The improved propulsion methods were, unfortunately, highly dangerous. Not only is gasoline ammable and unstable, using it in the restricted environment of a submarine posed quite a hazard for the crewmen. There was another problem, too: the batteries were not only heavy, cumbersome and inefficient, but they were also extremely volatile.
 

Paragraph 6

During the same period as Holland’s efforts were being trialled, a German scientist by the name of Rudolf Diesel created an engine which used a fuel less explosive than gasoline and which would consequently be stored safely. Another advantage was that there was no necessity for an electric spark to ignite the fuel. These safety improvements, combined with better fuel economy, allowed Diesel engines to power a submarine for longer on the surface; however, batteries were still needed to supply energy for underwater operation. 
 

Paragraph 7

Although diesel-powered submarines were successful and used by the US Navy for almost 50 years, the search for a single power source carried on. It wasn’t long before the concept of nuclear power was realised in Germany and taken up by an American physicist, Ross Gunn, who could envisage its potential in submersibles. A research team was put together to adapt the concept of nuclear power for use in submarines. In effect, modern nuclear submarines have on board a small nuclear power plant which produces a great amount of energy. This is used to heat water and create steam which drives a huge turbine which turns the propeller. 
 

Paragraph 8

There have been many adaptations and technological improvements made to submarines over the years, but the shape is basically the same. Obviously, it is a totally enclosed craft, cigar shaped with narrowed ends. The outer hull is the largest part of the boat and forms the body. The inner hull is designed to resist the considerable water pressure and insulates the crew from the cold. This is where the crew works, eats and sleeps. It also contains the engine room and the apparatus that makes clean air and clean water. Between the hulls are the ballast tanks for controlling buoyancy. There is a tall 8n-shaped sail that comes up out of the hull. Inside the sail is the conning tower and extending from this, to the fore, there is a periscope (through which the captain can see the sea and sky when the submarine is near the surface of the water). Sonar is used for navigation deep below the surface. The other projection from the conning tower is the radio antenna. 

 

Paragraph 9

Underwater, there are two controls for steering the submarine. The rudder (like a tail 8n) controls side-to-side movement, and diving planes influence rise and descent. There are two sets of diving planes: the forward sailplanes and the stem planes, which are located at the back with the rudder and propeller.
 

Paragraph 10

Advancing technology will undoubtedly result in different shapes and modes of operation, and it is quite possible that, in the future, submarines will be manned by robots or computer technology that communicates information to land bases via satellite.

2.

The Development of Travel Under the Ocean Reading Question and Answers

Discover exciting and informative IELTS reading answers about The Development of Travel Under the Ocean.

Questions and Answers 1-6
  • Answer the questions below.
  • Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the text for each answer.
  • Write your answers in boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet.

 

1. What kind of underwater device was used to investigate the ocean before submersible boats were invented?

2. What was the crewman of the first American-built submarine trying to do before his mission failed?

3. What gave the Nautilus the ability to remain submerged for a long time?

4. When was a submarine first used successfully to sink an enemy boat?

5. What new type of propulsion did the Holland use on top of the water?

6. For what reason was Diesel’s fuel considered safer than Holland’s?

 

The Development of Travel Under the Ocean Reading Answers with Explanation (1 - 6)


 

Type of question: Short Answer Question
 

How to best answer the question

  • Please read the instructions for each type of question carefully. The limits of words and any other instructions should be considered.
  • Quickly read the passage to get a general idea of the content and main ideas. It will help you find relevant information more easily.
  • Identify the key terms or phrases. You must find those words in the text to answer that question.
  • When identifying the keywords, look for specific information on this question in the text. Don't read every word; instead, look for the necessary details.


 

1. (Primitive) Diving bell

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph 2: ‘There had long been use of a primitive diving bell for exploratory purposes, but it was as a war machine that the submarine came into its own.’
 

Explanation

As per the reference, a primitive diving bell had long been used for exploratory purposes, but it was a war machine that brought the submarine to its own.


 

2. Fasten Explosive Devices

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph 2: ‘Although its pilot twice failed to fasten explosive devices to British ships before losing control of his vessel, he escaped harm.’
 

Explanation

As per the reference, the person who tried twice to attach explosives to British ships couldn't secure them properly and lost control of the boat, they managed to avoid getting hurt.

 

3. Compressed Air (system)

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph 3: ‘This version brought in features that can still be found in some modern submarines, notably adjustable diving planes for better underwater manoeuvring, dual systems of propulsion, and a compressed air system that allowed it to stay down for about four hours without surfacing.’
 

Explanation

 This version was accompanied by, among other things, improved diving equipment that could be used in some modern submarines, such as an adjustable dive plane to get more manoeuvrability at the bottom of the water, dual propulsion systems and a pressurised air system which would allow it to remain submerged for about four hours without landing.


 

4. 1864

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph 4: ‘Notwithstanding these failures, it was commissioned again in 1864 to attack a ship in Charleston Harbor.’
 

Explanation

As mentioned in the paragraph above, it was commissioned in 1864 to attack a vessel at Charleston Harbor despite these failures.


 

5. Gasoline (engine)

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph 5: ‘The inventor, John Holland, won the competition, and it was his sixth prototype, the Holland, that the Navy bought and added to its fleet in 1900. This submarine was quite different from previous designs. It was propelled by a gasoline engine that turned a propeller while the vessel was on the surface.’
 

Explanation

 As per the reference, John Holland won the competition, and it was his sixth prototype, the Holland, that the Navy bought and added to its; fleet in 1900. Compared to the prior designs, this submarine had been completely different. While the ship was on the surface, it had been driven by a gasoline engine that turned its propellers.


 

6. Less explosive/volatile

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph 6: ‘During the same period as Holland’s efforts were being trialled, a German scientist by the name of Rudolf Diesel created an engine which used a fuel less explosive than gasoline and which would consequently be stored safely.’
 

Explanation

 A German scientist named Rudolf Diesel built an engine using a fuel that was less explosive than gasoline, thus making it safe to store at the same time as Holland's experiments were underway.

Questions and Answers 7-13
  • Label the diagram below.
  • Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the text for each answer.
  • Write your answers in boxes 7-13 on your answer sheet.

 

 

7.   _____________

8.   _____________

9.   _____________

10. _____________

11. _____________

12. _____________

13. _____________


The Development of Travel Under the Ocean Reading Answers with Explanation (7 - 13)
 

Type of question: Labelling Diagram Questions

 

How to best answer the questions

 

  • The instructions for the Labelling Diagram Questions should be read carefully and understood. You must know if you label a diagram, a map, a flowchart, or any other visual representation.
  • Take a look at the diagram or drawing before reading this passage. Make sure you understand the elements and their arrangement. 
  • Please check that the labels already given are correct.
  • Go through the passage to get a general understanding of what's going on here. Look for information that is consistent with the labels in this diagram.


 

7. Sailplanes

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph 9: ‘There are two sets of diving planes: the forward sailplanes and the stem planes, which are located at the back with the rudder and propeller.’
 

Explanation

As the paragraph explains, there are two kinds of diving planes: the forward sailplanes and the stemplanes, located at the back with the rudder and the propeller.


 

8. Periscope

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph 8: ‘Inside the sail is the conning tower and extending from this to the fore, there is a periscope (through which the captain can see the sea and sky when the submarine is near the surface of the water).’
 

Explanation

As mentioned in the above paragraph, there is a conning tower on the sail, extending from here to the fore; there's a periscope through which the Captain can see the sea and sky when his submarine is close to the bottom of the water.


 

9. Radio antenna

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph 8: ‘The other projection from the conning tower is the radio antenna.’

 

Explanation

As per the reference, sonar is a means of navigation deep under the surface. The radio antenna is the second projection from the control tower.


 

10. Rudder

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph 9: ‘The rudder (like a tail 8n) controls side-to-side movement, and diving planes influence rise and descent.’
 

Explanation

As per the paragraph, the rudder (like a tail 8n) controls side-to-side movement, and diving planes influence rise and descent.


 

11. Propeller

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph 9: ‘There are two sets of diving planes: the forward sailplanes and the stem planes, which are located at the back with the rudder and propeller.’
 

Explanation

There are two sets of diving planes: the forward sailplanes and the stem planes, with the rudder and propeller, located at the back.


 

12. Stem planes

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph 9: ‘There are two sets of diving planes: the forward sailplanes and the stem planes, which are located at the back with the rudder and propeller.’
 

Explanation

There are two kinds of diving planes: the forward sailplanes and the stemplanes, located at the back with the rudder and the propeller.


 

13. Outer hull

 

Reference:

 

From paragraph 8: ‘The outer hull is the largest part of the boat and forms the body.’
 

Explanation

As mentioned in the paragraph, the main part of the ship is its exterior hull, which forms a body.

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FAQs

Q. What is an IELTS Reading test?

A. The IELTS Reading test is a component of the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) exam, designed to assess a person's proficiency in the English language. The Reading test evaluates a candidate's reading comprehension skills and consists of passages from academic and general interest texts. The test taker must answer questions about the passages' content, structure, and vocabulary. The test is typically 60 minutes long and includes 40 questions.

Q. How long is the IELTS Reading test?

The IELTS Reading test is typically 60 minutes long. During this time, you must read passages from academic and general interest texts and answer 40 questions about the passages' content, structure, and vocabulary. It is essential to manage your time effectively during the test to ensure that you have enough time to read each passage and answer all the questions.


 

Q. How many passages are there in the IELTS Reading test?

The IELTS Reading test typically consists of three passages, each with its own questions. The passages are taken from academic and general interest texts, and the questions are designed to test a candidate's reading comprehension skills. Each passage is followed by 13 to 14 questions, totalling 40 questions for the entire test. 

Q. What types of questions are included in the IELTS Reading test?

A. The IELTS Reading test includes 40 questions about three passages from academic and general interest texts. The test consists of various question types, such as multiple choice, matching, sentence completion, summary completion, note completion, diagram labelling, and short answer questions. The questions are designed to test a candidate's reading comprehension skills, including their ability to understand the passages' content, structure, and vocabulary.

Q. How is the IELTS Reading test scored?

A. The IELTS Reading test is scored on a scale of 0 to 9 based on a candidate's overall performance. Each correct answer is awarded one point, and there is no penalty for incorrect answers. The band score reflects a candidate's ability to read and understand complex texts in English, and it is used by universities, colleges, and other organisations to assess a candidate's English language proficiency.

Q. Are spelling mistakes penalised for the IELTS Reading test?

A. Spelling mistakes are penalised in the IELTS Reading test. If you spell a word incorrectly, you will lose marks for that question, even if your answer is correct. Therefore, it is important to double-check your spelling before moving on to the next question. If you are unsure of the spelling of a word, try to write it in a way that looks correct or use synonyms to avoid spelling errors.

Q. Is grammar necessary for the IELTS Reading test?

A. While the IELTS Reading test primarily assesses your reading comprehension skills, grammar is still an important aspect of the test. The test assesses your ability to understand and use grammar structures in context and your ability to communicate effectively in writing. In addition, the Grammatical Range and Accuracy criterion is one of the four criteria used to determine your overall score in the IELTS Reading test. 

Q. Can I retake the IELTS Reading test alone?

A. No, you cannot retake the IELTS Reading test alone. The IELTS test assesses all four language skills (listening, reading, writing, and speaking), and you must take all four tests together. If you want to retake the Reading test, you must retake the entire IELTS test. It is important to note that your scores are valid for two years from your test date, and you cannot choose to retake only one section of the test to improve your score.

Q. What are good tips/practices for IELTS Reading preparation?

A. Good tips for IELTS Reading preparation include familiarising yourself with the test format, reading widely, practising regularly, using a timer, building vocabulary, taking notes, reviewing grammar rules, focusing on main ideas, and double-checking your answers.

Q. What is a good score for my IELTS Reading module?

A. A good score for the IELTS Reading module depends on the institution or organisation you are applying to. Generally, a score of 6.5 or higher is considered a good score. However, some institutions may require a higher score, such as 7.0 or 7.5. It is important to check the requirements of the institution or organisation you are applying to and aim to achieve the score they require.

Q. What is the average score for the IELTS Reading test?

A. The average score for the IELTS Reading test varies depending on the region and the purpose for which it is being taken. Generally, a score of 6.0 is considered an average score on the IELTS Reading test. However, remember that the average score can vary depending on the institution or organisation you are applying to, as some may require a higher score.